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2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Will Be Launched, May Help Fight Cancer

Source:Iris Liang Time:2019-10-8 8:45:18

On the afternoon of October 7, Beijing time, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was announced in 2019. The award was given to American medical scientist William G. Kaelin Jr., British medical scientist Peter R. Rockcliffe and American medical scientist Gregg L. Semenza) in recognition of their “discovery of how cells perceive and adapt to oxygen changes”. They will split the prize of 9 million Swedish kronor (about 6.5 million yuan).

Nobel's official website said that the importance of oxygen is no longer a rumor, but how cells adapt to changes in oxygen levels has not been known. This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awards pioneered one of the most important adaptation mechanisms in life, helping people understand how oxygen levels affect cellular metabolism and physiological functions. The discovery also paved the way for new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and other diseases. Keeping creation and discovery is the aim of SEKO Machinery. We have developed a roller-type large-diameter steel tube black annealing furnace to help customers solve the thorny problem of steel tube annealing, and have been highly recognized by customers.

Is this a study?

The British "Guardian" said that this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is a true physiology award, the core of which is the body's response to a hypoxic environment. When the body is in anoxic state, Erythropoietin (EPO) increases, stimulating the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells, while red blood cells bring oxygen. But how does the reduction in oxygen levels trigger this reaction? This is the question that this year's Nobel Prize winners want to answer.

Randall Johnson, a member of the awards committee and a professor at the University of Cambridge, said, “Many scientists often use the word 'textbook discovery', but today this is really a textbook discovery,” three winners “discovered a regulation of oxygen content. The molecular switch of how the cells adapt when falling."

According to reports, this "switch" is a protein called Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). They found that HIF decomposes rapidly under normal oxygen conditions, but when the oxygen content drops, the HIF content increases. More importantly, HIF can also control the expression level of EPO. If a DNA fragment is inserted next to a gene, the gene will be induced by hypoxia.

Why is this research important?

The impact of this discovery is very broad. According to reports, the body's response to changes in oxygen content involves all processes from exercise to embryonic development. It is also associated with a variety of diseases, such as chronic renal failure patients with severe anemia due to a reduction in EPO.

According to the Guardian, many physicists welcome this award as a recognition of basic research in physiology. Brigitte Lamb, president of the British Physiological Society, said, "This year's Nobel Prize puts physiology at the forefront and core position, which is an acknowledgement of important research by physiologists. Such cutting-edge physiology research is improving our body. Understanding the operational mechanisms that will help us stay healthy."

Dr. Andrew Morrie of the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge said that the three-person research awards were well deserved. According to Mori, "Oxygen is the foundation of life, which allows mitochondria to extract energy from the foods ingested." The three-person study "discloses the mechanism by which cells perceive oxygen levels and respond to fluctuations, thereby enhancing oxygen to human tissue. The delivery has changed our metabolism." Mori said that since the first report on hypoxia-inducible factors in the 1990s, people have realized their importance in daily life. "Hypoxia is a hallmark of many diseases, including heart failure, chronic lung disease. And many cancers. The work of these three scientists and their teams paved the way for a better understanding of these common life-threatening diseases and for finding new strategies to treat these diseases."

Eric Greenhouse, MD, Ph.D., a professor of cancer biology at the University of the West of England, commented that this year's Nobel Prize is "important to understand how cells perceive and respond to changes in oxygen levels," and that this "is significant for diseases associated with impaired blood supply. Significance, including solid tumors such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer."

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